I have been eating low-carb paleo and IF 18/6 for the last 6 months and have been able to reduce some bodyfat which was the goal. I havbe a long way to go, so I added keto to the mix in the last couple weeks, increasing fat to about 65%, protein 30%, and carbs 5%. 2 weeks prior to starting keto, my latest CMP showed elevated BUN (36 - ref range: 6-24), elevated BUN/Creatinine ratio (39 - ref range:9-20), and elevated urinary uric acid (1118.0 - ref range: 250.0-750.0). I also showed elevated serum calcium (10.9 - ref range: 8.7-10.2). My serum uric acid (UA), however, was normal (4.6 - ref range: 3.7-8.6) as is my creatinine (0.92 - ref range 0.76-1.27) and eGFR (95 - ref range >59). There is no protein in my urine. I do not have gout. These levels have gradually increased over the last 6 mos. I posted on my elevated BUN & uric acid recently: http://www.allthingsmale.com/forum/showthread.php?21082-Need-input-Elevated-BUN-urine-uric-acid Just yesterday noticed blood pressure remained elevated all day despite my usual BP-lowering supps. First time ever they had zero effect. I wonder if the increased intake of fats (SFAs) on the keto/low carb diet are causing this, as I have changed nothing else perhaps by increasing total cholesterol? http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9021429 but this contradicts that: http://weightoftheevidence.blogspot.com/2006/02/what-does-saturated-fat-do-to-your.html Or could this be the beginning stages of kidney dysfunction, as it goes hand-in-hand with hypertension? According to this article, keto may help reduce BP, but may cause kidney stones, the very thing I'm trying to prevent from recurring: http://voices.yahoo.com/ketogenic-diets-help-control-blood-pressure-5349961.html More on keto and stones: http://perfecthealthdiet.com/2010/11/dangers-of-zero-carb-diets-iv-kidney-stones/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17621514 http://paleohacks.com/questions/14847/does-a-ketogenic-diet-cause-kidney-stones#axzz26twJurzQ And this excerpt from the Paul Jaminet link above explains my elevated uric acid as well: Uric Acid Production One difference between a ketogenic (or zero-carb) diet and a normal diet is the high rate of protein metabolism. If both glucose and ketones are generated from protein, then over 150 g protein per day is consumed in gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis. This releases a substantial amount of nitrogen. While urea is the main pathway for nitrogen disposal, uric acid is the excretion pathway for 1% to 3% of nitrogen.  This suggests that ketogenic dieters produce an extra 1 to 3 g/day uric acid from protein metabolism. A normal person excretes about 0.6 g/day.  In addition to kidney stones, excess uric acid production may lead to gout. Some Atkins and low-carb Paleo dieters have contracted gout. Perhaps I should cycle my protein intake as well as carbs? Increase fat even more? And what amount of water is recommended for low-carbers? Gallon/day? I'm at a loss as to what else I can do. Any feedback appreciated!